We must clarify:
what is an Eskimo
what is an Eskimo language
what is a word
how many references are there to snow in a given Eskimo language.
1. What is an Eskimo
Eskimos are native peoples living in the arctic Canada, northern Alaska
and Greenland. While the term Inuit is preferred to Eskimo by many in
Canada, the term is retained here because
(a) it properly refers to any Eskimo group, not only the Inuit;
(b) its use is widespread in Native communities in Alaska.
2. What is an Eskimo language
There are five Eskimo languages, of which the best-known is Inuit, spoken
in a series of well-differentiated dialects ranging from Northern Alaska,
across the Canadian far north, and up to the coast of Greenland.
The Eskimo language used for this article is Central Alaskan Yupik which
is spoken by about 13,000 people in the coast and river areas of Southwestern
Alaska from Norton Sound to Bristol Bay.
The specific dictionary used is Steven A. Jacobson's (1984) Yup'ik Eskimo
See also words from Labrador and West Greenland
3. What is a word.
This is not as simple a question as may be commonly supposed. Woodbury
suggests "lexemes" are more useful than "words."
A lexeme is like an independent dictionary entry. For example English
has a single lexeme speak
which gives rise to inflected forms like speaks,
Eskimo languages have such complex inflections that each single noun
lexeme may have about 280 distinct inflected forms, while each verb
lexeme may have over 1000.
The Eskimo languages are the prototypical example of a polysynthetic
language, wherein one word contains several elements of the situation.
This allows very complex ideas to be expressed in one word, e.g. 'tikitqaarminaitnigaa'
"he said that he would not be able to arrive first".
Thus "my snow", "your snow", etc., would each be
one word in Inuit, a stem form with a possessive affix.
4. How many references to snow
Here is a list of lexemes referring to snow in Yup'ik.
It is difficult to count because of the question of whether each lexeme
can be counted separately. Woodbury offers these criteria:
(a) Do we count speak
as different items?
(b) Do words/lexemes with these meanings really count for you as words
(c) Do you count synonyms separately or not?
(d) If you decided to count synonyms together, will you also count together
the members of noun-verb pairs which have basically the same meaning?
can be a noun or a verb
(e) Some of the lexemes only occur in a small area of the Central Alaskan
Yupik-speaking region. Are you going to try to make counts for each
the lexemes for snow
qanir- 'to snow'
qanunge- 'to snow' [NUN]
qanugglir- 'to snow' [NUN]
kaner- 'be frosty/frost sth.'
(3) Fine snow/rain particles
kanevvluk 'fine snow/rain particles
kanevcir- to get fine snow/rain particles
(4) Drifting particles
natquik 'drifting snow/etc'
natqu(v)igte- 'for snow/etc. to drift along ground'
(5) Clinging particles
nevluk 'clinging debris/
nevlugte- 'have clinging debris/...'lint/snow/dirt...'
(6) Fallen snow on the ground
aniu [NS] 'snow on ground'
aniu- [NS] 'get snow on ground'
apun [NS] 'snow on ground'
qanikcaq 'snow on ground'
qanikcir- 'get snow on ground'
(7) Soft, deep fallen snow on the ground
muruaneq 'soft deep snow'
(8) Crust on fallen snow
qetrar- [NSU] 'for snow to crust'
qerretrar- [NSU] 'for snow to crust'
(9) Fresh fallen snow on the ground
nutaryuk 'fresh snow' [HBC]
(10) Fallen snow floating on water
qanisqineq 'snow floating on water'
(11) Snow bank
qengaruk 'snow bank' [Y, HBC]
(12) Snow block
utvak 'snow carved in block'
(13) Snow cornice
navcaq [NSU] 'snow cornice, snow (formation) about to collapse'
navcite- 'get caught in an avalanche'
(14) Blizzard, snowstorm
pirta 'blizzard, snowstorm'
pircir- 'to blizzard'
pirtuk 'blizzard, snowstorm'
(15) Severe blizzard
cellallir-, cellarrlir- 'to snow heavily'
pir(e)t(e)pag- 'to blizzard severely'
pirrelvag- 'to blizzard severely'
So in this list there are fifteen significant lexemes plus several varieties
See also the
list from Labrador and West Greenland which
gives more words for snow.
Depending upon which decisions you come to about the criteria above
you may come to a different total.
6. English snow lexemes (22 for comparison)
(Inuit iglu 'house')
(Inuit pingu(q) 'ice lens')
Do you agree with the list?
Does it conform to the same criteria as you decided for the Eskimo words?
What is your view on the Sapir/Whorf hypothesis now?
The dialect area abbreviations used:
NS Norton Sound dialect
NSU Norton Sound, Unaliq subdialect
HBC Hooper Bay-Chevak
Y Yukon River area subdialect of General Central Alaskan Yupik dialect
Harry Mount in "How England Made The English" makes several claims about precise linguistic terms for landscape items. He suggests the Sami people in Arctic Scandinavia have more words for snow than do the Inuit.
Furthermore he claims that the Anglo Saxons in England had more than 40 words for "hill" depending on its exact appearance and chareacteristics. He points out that describing "the tall hum-backed hill by the stream" or whatever, was the best way to find your way without a map.
"So, a place ending in -dun (the North and South Downs were originally Duns) meant a flat-topped hill that was easy to build on. Those ending in -hoh, like Ivinghoe ... were sharply projecting, heel-shaped hills. Endings in -hop meant a valley or, more precisely, a remote place enclosed by hills."
Lexemes referring to snow in Steven A. Jacobson's (1984) Yup'ik Eskimo
Based on an article by Anthony C. Woodbury University of Texas at Austin
See also "The great Eskimo vocabulary hoax" by Geoff Pullum.
See also Mark Halpern, Language & Human Nature
(Transaction Publications, 2008).