of Australopithecus afarensis (known as Selam or LIttle
Lucy) suggests anatomical adaptations to walking on two legs while
also well adapted to living in trees. A unique tongue bone suggests
speech was unlikely.
"An interesting feature is
the hyoid or tongue bone, never found before in a species older than
Neanderthal man. It influences the voice box and is important to the
debate about the origins of human speech. Selam’s hyoid is much
more similar to that of modern apes than humans, suggesting that A.
afarensis was not capable of language." Read
the rest of the article here.
Study of ear bones suggest simple speech may have
evolve. Though there may have been some interbreeding, homo sapiens
and nenderthal man are separate species with a common ancestor of
sapiens appears in Africa, descending from Homo erectus
sapiens into Europe, Australia
Some authorities believe language emerged at this time, in parallel
with a surge in the creation of cultural artifacts. It is not likely
to have emerged later than this period.
hunter gatherers begin to create symbols of themselves and their environment
last known (Gorham's cave, Gibraltar)
ages, mammoth hunting ...
bone flute found from this time suggesting advanced cultural developments
paintings at Lascaux
into North America
Probable first Indo-European
speakers in Turkey
First writing system - Sumerian script,
which develops into cuneiform
in steppes of Russia
in Eastern Mediterranean
First alphabetic script
developed by Semitic workers in Egypt